Democracy as the Political Empowerment of the People


"A richly comprehensive and commanding treatment of the many theories of democracy, of much value to students and scholars alike."—Michael Parenti, Author of Democracy for the Few, and Superpatriotism


"Behrouzi's Democracy as the Political Empowerment of the People: The Betrayal of an Ideal sets out an original and powerful attack on liberal democracy as a perversion of the democratic ideal. By laying claim to the idea that genuine democracy constitutes the direct participation of citizens in the legislative and political decision-making process, Behrouzi persuasively shows that the preoccupation with political representation in both democratic theory and practice is misplaced. This attack by Behrouzi lays the groundwork for his own distinctive account of democracy in the companion volume Democracy as the Political empowerment of the Citizen: Direct-Deliberative e-Democracy."—Lesley Jacobs, Professor of Law & Society, Director, Graduate Program in Social and Political Thought, York University


"This is a sound and instructive review of the history of democratic thought. It is also extremely well-researched and informed by a broad familiarity with contemporary theory. The author is particularly adept at seeking the authentic democratic kernels and missteps in each vision, as well as the dialogue among the various traditions and their exponents.  In this sense the work is refreshingly broad and synthetic, an achievement that is valuable in the contemporary context of parochialism in political thought."—Richard Wellen, Professor of Social Sciences, York University (Canada)


"Majid Behrouzi's exhaustive and illuminating account of democracy as the  rule by the people  takes on increased importance with new demands, in the U.S. and around the world, for citizens' substantive participation in the democratic process. Behrouzi puts pressure on democracy to live up to its full ideal and exposes those conceptions of democracy that betray its promise. In his second volume, he finds the solution in e-democracy-a stunning account backed by a genuinely illuminating and full theory."—Joseph P. DeMarco, Professor of Philosophy, Cleveland State University